Card Present vs. Card Not Present Transactions
On the surface, “card-present” and “card-not-present” seem like self-explanatory terms. Either the card was present at the time of a transaction or it was not present. However, the rise of alternative payment channels has muddied the waters a bit, leaving some businesses confused as to why their transactions are CNP when they expected CP.
- Types of Transactions
- Why does it matter?
- Test Your Knowledge
Types of Transactions
First, let’s define “card-present” and “card-not-present.” More than just the physical presence of the credit card, a transaction is considered “card-present” only if electronic data is captured at the time of the sale. Data can be captured by swiping a magnetic strip card, dipping an EMV chip card, or tapping an NFC / contactless digital wallet with a stored card, like a smartphone with Apple Pay enabled.
All other payment methods are considered “card-not-present” even if the card is physically with the customer at the time of the transaction.
Card-present transaction methods include:
- Traditional countertop credit card machines
- POS Systems with card readers
- Contactless-enabled terminals
- Card readers connected to smartphones or tablets
Card-not-present transaction methods include:
- Online shopping carts
- “Buy” buttons on websites
- Recurring or subscription billing
- Electronic invoicing
- Orders taken over the phone and manually entered
- Payment apps on smartphones or tablets that don’t use a card reader
In each of the card-not-present cases above, even if a card is with the customer, the electronic data (the data on the magnetic strip or chip) wasn’t provided with the transaction, which makes it “card-not-present.”
Why does it matter?
There are a few reasons that you should care about whether transactions are considered card-present or card-not-present. The primary two reasons are that the input method affects your costs for processing and can affect your chargeback liability.
Costs for Processing
*** If you’re unfamiliar with processing, check out our credit card processing guide. ***
As a quick refresher, the cost for any credit card transaction is made up of three components: interchange, assessments, and markup. Interchange accounts for the bulk of a transaction’s cost to process, but there are hundreds of interchange categories. Which category a transaction falls under varies depending on several factors. One of those factors is how the card is entered.
At the interchange level, card-present transactions are typically lower cost than card-not present transactions. For example, here is a snippet of Visa’s interchange rates for card-present transactions:
All of these categories are for “card-present” transactions. Even though there are additional criteria that determine which category a transaction will be routed to, they share an entry method. Transactions falling under these categories would all be from cards that were swiped, dipped, or tapped.
Compare that to this section of Visa’s interchange rates for card-not-present transactions:
Transactions charged according to these categories would not be swiped, dipped, or tapped. As you can see from the names on the left, one category is for cards that were keyed in by a retail business, one is a general card-not-present category, and then there are two ecommerce categories.
Without taking anything else into account (like processor markup), we can see that card-not-present transactions will cost more at the most basic level.
Additionally, pricing model and processor markup play a role in how much you’ll be charged. If you’re on an interchange plus pricing model, you’ll be charged the actual interchange cost for your transactions and a separate markup. In this scenario, your processor’s markup stays the same no matter what, but the higher interchange rate category means you’ll pay more.
On other pricing models, such as tiered pricing, your processor can simply choose to surcharge any transactions it wants to. You may see “non-qualified” rates on your statement for higher interchange category transactions.
Of course, if you’re legitimately accepting card-not-present transactions because it’s the standard (or only) way of doing so – like with ecommerce payments – then there isn’t much you can do about paying CNP rates.
However, if you’re being charged CNP interchange because you’re keying in transactions even though a customer hands you their card, you could potentially lower your costs by adding a card reader.
You’ll have plenty of choices – you can use a countertop credit card machine or full POS system, a card reader that attaches to your smartphone or tablet through a headphone jack or Bluetooth, or even a USB card reader that plugs in to your computer for use with a virtual terminal.
Card-present transactions are typically considered less risky. You can still be on the hook for chargebacks with card-present transactions, but your chances of chargeback liability with a card-not-present transaction may be higher.
The EMV liability shift of October 2015 dictated what happens with certain types of liability for EMV chip cards. In simplest terms, if your business doesn’t have an EMV capable credit card reader and you accept a chip card by swiping it through a magstripe reader, you’re liable for fraud that occurs. If you use a chip reader, fraud liability stays with the processor or bank.
Test Your Knowledge
Now that we’ve gone over what constitutes a card-present or a card-not present transaction, let’s see how it would play out in various common scenarios that your business may encounter. Read the following examples and make your guess, then check the answer to see if you’re correct.
Jen buys a vase at an outdoor antique show. She hands her credit card to the seller, who enters Jen’s card details into a secure payment app on a smartphone. The seller keys in Jen’s card number, name, expiration date, and the 3-digit CVV code and then hands Jen’s card back. Is this a card-present or a card-not-present transaction?
Answer: Card-not-present. Even though Jen physically handed her card to the seller, the seller keyed in the card information. There is no way to prove that the card was there at the time of the transaction, as electronic data wasn’t captured.
Samantha receives an electronic invoice for goods purchased by her company. She clicks on a secure payment link and sees a form for payment information. Samantha takes the company credit card from her purse, enters the card details, and completes the payment. Is this a card-present or a card-not-present transaction?
Answer: Card-not-present. While the card was with Samantha when she paid the invoice, it was never swiped through a card reader and no electronic data was captured.
Mike stops at his favorite coffee shop on the way to work. He pays for his latte by tapping his smartphone to the shop’s NFC terminal and leaves with his drink. He does not give a card or his phone to the cashier. Is this a card-present or a card-not-present transaction?
Answer: Card-present. Even though Mike didn’t use a physical credit card, his phone takes the place of the card and provides data at the time of the transaction.
Bottom line: If it’s possible to run cards through a reader (or enable contactless NFC payments) without inconveniencing your customers, it’s a good idea to do so. You may benefit from lower costs and more secure transactions.